Category Archives: Indiana Historic Newspaper Digitization

“Indiana history is the product of local events, and local events tend to be captured within the pages of the community newspapers. The Indiana State Library has worked tirelessly to provide Hoosiers with free access to this information, traditionally on microfilm. Digitization of these newspapers is the ‘next step’ in providing 21st century access for Hoosiers to local events in Indiana history.”

NEH funding renewed for two more years of digitizing Indiana newspapers

The following is a news release from the Library of Congress about new grant awards for the upcoming two years, including more Indiana newspapers!  Historic newspapers slated to be added in the coming two years include more issues of the Indianapolis Journal and the Indiana Tribüne, that we were unable to incorporate during the first grant.  In addition, the Western Sun, published in Vincennes, Indiana, will be included in the project.  The Sun has a long history in Indiana; it has been in continuous publication, despite turnovers in ownership and name changes, since it was started on July 4, 1807.

NEH Announces $3.5 Million for 2013 NDNP Awards, including Participation by 4 New States and Territories

July 29, 2013

Recently the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) announced 14 awards totaling $3.5 million to institutions representing their states or territories in the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). Three projects – sponsored by the Connecticut State Library; the Idaho State Historical Society; and the Mississippi Department of Archives and History – are new to the program this year. The University of Florida returns to NDNP, partnered with a new NDNP participant, the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, to digitize newspapers from both locations. Ten other institutions – University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Indiana State Library; Kansas State Historical Society; Louisiana State University Libraries; Montana Historical Society; State Historical Society of North Dakota; Oklahoma Historical Society; University of Oregon Libraries; University of South Carolina; and West Virginia University Research Corporation – have received continuing awards to contribute additional content to the program.

This funding will support the selection and digitization of historic American newspapers published between 1836 and 1922 by each participating state, according to NDNP technical guidelines. The Library of Congress (LC) will make these newspapers freely available through the Chronicling America Website (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/) beginning in mid-2014. In all, 37 states and territories have participated in the program.

NDNP, a partnership between the NEH and the LC, is a long-term effort to provide an Internet-based, searchable database of all U.S. newspapers with descriptive information and select digitization of historic pages. Supported by NEH, this rich digital resource will be developed and permanently maintained at the Library of Congress. The NEH grant program will fund the contribution of content from, eventually, all U.S. states and territories…. Read more about it!

The Secret Surgery of President Grover Cleveland: Indiana State Sentinel, July 5, 1893

President Grover Cleveland. Wiki Commons.

In the midst of the fight for repeal of Free Silver coinage in 1893, Cleveland sought the advice of the White House doctor, Dr. O’Reilly, about soreness on the roof of his mouth and a crater-like edge ulcer with a granulated surface on the left side of Cleveland’s hard palate. Samples of the tumor were sent anonymously to the army medical museum. The diagnosis was not a malignant cancer, but instead an epithelioma.

Indiana State Sentinel – July 5 1893 – Hoosier State Chronicles

Cleveland decided to have surgery secretly, to avoid further panic that might worsen the financial depression. The surgery occurred on July 1, to give Cleveland time to make a full recovery in time for the upcoming Congressional session. Under the guise of a vacation cruise, Cleveland and his surgeon, Dr. Joseph Bryant, left for New York. The surgeons operated aboard the Oneida, a yacht owned by Cleveland’s friend E. C. Benedict, as it sailed off Long Island. The surgery was conducted through the president’s mouth, to avoid any scars or other signs of surgery. The team, sedating Cleveland with nitrous oxide and ether, successfully removed parts of his upper left jaw and hard palate. The size of the tumor and the extent of the operation left Cleveland’s mouth disfigured. During another surgery, Cleveland was fitted with a hard rubber dental prosthesis that corrected his speech and restored his appearance. A cover story about the removal of two bad teeth kept the suspicious press placated. Even when a newspaper story appeared giving details of the actual operation, the participating surgeons discounted the severity of what transpired during Cleveland’s vacation. In 1917, one of the surgeons present on the Oneida, Dr. William W. Keen, wrote an article detailing the operation.

Cleveland enjoyed many years of life after the tumor was removed, and there was some debate as to whether it was actually malignant. Several doctors, including Dr. Keen, stated after Cleveland’s death that the tumor was a carcinoma. Other suggestions included ameloblastoma or a benign salivary mixed tumor (also known as a pleomorphic adenoma). In the 1980s, analysis of the specimen finally confirmed the tumor to be verrucous carcinoma, a low-grade epithelial cancer with a low potential for metastasis.

President Lincoln and Religion: The Evening Journal, September 6,1872

President Abraham Lincoln. Nathan Greene Studio.

“Mr. Lincoln’s Religious Views
The testimony of Mrs. Rebecca R. Pomeroy of Newton, Mass.”

(Page one, third column, seventh title down.)

 

Indianapolis Journal, September 6, 1872. Hoosier State Chronicles.

Susan B. Anthony Arrested for Voting: The Evening Journal, November 25, 1872

Susan B. Anthony, in her older years. Courtesy of Wikipedia.
Susan B. Anthony, in her older years. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

“Miss Anthony in Court.”

First appearance of a woman on charge of illegal voting.
[Reprint from the Rochester Democrat, November 10, 1872] 

 

The Evening Journal, November 25, 1872. Hoosier State Chronicles.

 

The Evening Journal (Tuesday June 4, 1872): “Our German Citizens” & “The Assassin of President Abraham Lincoln”

The Evening Journal, June 4, 1872. Hoosier State Chronicles.

The following front page of The Evening Journal, Tuesday June 4, 1872, contains an article detailing the testimony taken from farmer Richard H. Garrett who, unknowingly, harbored John Wilkes Booth in his barn the day the Union army arrived on his land, set his barn on fire and shot Mr. Booth to death. This article can be found at the top of the second column from the left.

The Evening Journal, June 4, 1872. Hoosier State Chronicles.

There is another article entitled, “Our German Citizens” contained within this newspaper image.   This is a very flattering article describing how no other immigrants in our country / state have offered so much to the very growth and development of our country/state than that of the German immigrants.  It goes on to describe how the German’s were able to successfully do all of this while maintaining their heritage and culture, unlike other immigrants that lost their traditional ways through cultural assimilation. This article can be found at the bottom of the first column from the left.

Indiana First State to Honor Native American Indians: The Pottowotomie (The Plymouth Tribune, Thursday July 29, 1909)

Plymouth Tribune, July 29, 1909. Hoosier State Chronicles.

First Column, First Article
Gives History of Pottawatomie Indians in Marshall County.
Wm. E. Curtis Tells of Plans to Unveil Monument to Chief at Twin Lakes on September 4th.

William E. Curtis the special correspondent of the Chicago Record Herald gives the following account of plans to honor the former rulers of America, the Indians at Twin Lakes, Marshall County. He says:

The celebrations of the anniversaries of Hendrik Hudson and Sieur Champlain are serving an important purpose in reviving a interest in historical events and in stimulating the study of our own short past as a nation. In collecting material for a series of articles upon monuments which have been erected to American Indians I have found that much more attention has been paid to the subject than I had supposed, and there are historical societies supported by public appropriations in many of the states as well as private organizations which are keeping alive stories of heroism and sacrifice among the aborigines as well as the explorers of the continent and the pioneers of our civilization.

Within the last year no less than five new monuments have been erected to American Indians, the most of them have been a tardy recognition of nobility of character and obligations for services rendered the white race, while others have been erected to emphasize wrongs that cannot be otherwise redressed. The latter is particularly true of a monument which is to be dedicated Sept. 4 next at Twin Lake station on the Vandalia Railroad, in Marshall County, Ind, near the center of the former reservation of the Menominee band of the Pottawattomie Indians, who were driven from their homes by military force under the authority of the government of the United States amid circumstances of merciless injustices. The monument, which is now being put into position, consists of a pedestal of bare granite ten feet high, supporting a statue seven feet high, of an Indian chieftain in ceremonial dress. It bears the following inscription.

“In memory of Chief Menominee and his band of 859 Pottawattomie Indians, removed from this reservation Sept. 4, 1838 by a company of soldiers under the command of General John Tipton, authorized by Governor David Wallace.”

The monument will be dedicated on the 71st anniversary of the eviction with appropriate ceremonies and will be unveiled by a grand-daughter of the late Pottawattomie chief, Poka-gon of Hartford, Mich.

Plymouth Tribune, September 9, 1909. Hoosier State Chronicles.

The Bates House in Indianapolis (1853)

Indiana State Sentinel, February 20, 1861. Hoosier State Chronicles.

Abraham Lincoln’s Whistle Stop Tour from Illinois to Washington D.C.

The president-elect, Abraham Lincoln, began his journey on February 11, 1861 from Springfield, IL to Washington D.C.  One of his first stops on his way to Washington D.C. was Indianapolis, where he made the following uncharacteristically candid speech from the second story balcony of the Bates House.

The Bates House
The Bates house, one of the first hotels in downtown Indianapolis, was established in 1853 and is famous for the first major policy statement given by President Abraham Lincoln to 45,000 on lookers from the hotel balcony. In 1903, The Bates House was turned into The Claypool, a bustling hotel famous for its lobby, which was reportedly the largest in the country, and its grand size of 450 guest rooms, each with its own private bath, a new phenomenon of the time. Many celebrities and presidents stayed at the Claypool, including William Howard Taft, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The site of the former Bates House is now the Embassy Suites in Indianapolis.

“Fellow-Citizens of the State of Indiana: I am here to thank you much for this magnificent welcome, and still more for the very generous support given by your State to that political cause which I think is the true and just cause of the whole country and the whole world. Solomon says, “There is a time to keep silence;” and when men wrangle by the mouth with no certainty that they mean the same thing while using the same word, it perhaps were as well if they would keep silence.

The words “coercion” and “invasion ” are much used in these days, and often with some temper and hot blood. Let us make sure, if we can, that we do not misunderstand the meaning of those who use them. Let us get the exact definitions of these words, not from dictionaries, but from the men themselves, who certainly deprecate the things they would represent by the use of the words. What, then, is “coercion?” What is “invasion?”–Would the marching of an army into South Carolina, without the consent of her people, and with hostile intent towards them, be invasion? I certainly think it would be “coercion,” also, if the South Carolinians were forced to submit.

But if the United States should merely hold and retake its own forts and other property, and collect the duties on foreign importations, or even withhold the mails from places where they were habitually violated, would any or all these things be “invasion” or “coercion?” Do our professed lovers of the Union, but who spitefully resolve that they will resist coercion and invasion, understand that such things as these on the part of the United States would be coercion or invasion of a State? If so, their idea of means to preserve the object of their great affection would seem to be exceedingly thin and airy. If sick, the little pills of the homeopathist would be much too large for it to swallow.–In their view the Union, as a family relation, would seem to be no regular marriage, but rather a sort of “free love” arrangement, to be maintained on passional attraction.

By the way, in what consists the special sacredness of a State? I speak not of the position assigned to a State in the Union by the Constitution, for that by the bond we all recognize. That position, however, a State cannot carry out of the Union with it. I speak of that assumed primary right of a State to rule all which is less than itself. If a State and a county, in a given case, should be equal in extent of territory and equal in number of inhabitants, in what, as a matter of principle, is the State better than the county? Would an exchange of names be an exchange of rights? Upon principle, on what rightful principle may a State, being no more than one-fiftieth part of the nation in soil and population, break up the nation and then coerce a proportionably larger sub-division of itself in the most arbitrary way? What mysterious right to play tyrant is conferred on a district of country with its people by merely calling it a State?

Fellow-citizens, I am not asserting anything. I am merely asking questions for you to consider. And now allow me to bid you farewell.”

HOOSIER GERMAN NEWSPAPER DIGITIZATION FOR CHRONICLING AMERICA (Hoosier deutschen Zeitung Digitalisierung für Chronik Amerika)

The May 15, 1902 issue of the Indiana Tribune. Courtesy of Hoosier State Chronicles.
The May 15, 1902 issue of the Indiana Tribune. Courtesy of Hoosier State Chronicles.

Since the NDNP’s project beginnings, nearly seven years ago, the Library of Congress could not accept German-printed newspapers because the font type commonly used during the 19th and 20th centuries (Fraktur) represented significant challenges when conducting Optical Character Recognition (OCR). (OCR allows the end-user the ability to research digitally-created newspapers with advanced word-search engines.) Fortunately, OCR software and technology have made significant advances over the years and now allow Fraktur font-based German newspapers’ a unique opportunity for ingestion by the Library of Congress.

Seit der NDNP das Projekt Anfängen vor fast sieben Jahren, konnte die Library of Congress nicht akzeptieren deutschen gedruckten Zeitungen, weil die Schriftart häufig während des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (Fraktur) verwendet vertreten erheblichen Herausforderungen bei der Durchführung von Optical Character Recognition (OCR). (OCR ermöglicht dem Endbenutzer die Möglichkeit, digital erzeugte Zeitungen mit fortgeschrittenen Wort-Suchmaschinen recherchieren.) Glücklicherweise OCR Software und Technologie wurden bedeutende Fortschritte im Laufe der Jahre gemacht und erlauben nun Fraktur font-basierten deutschen Zeitungen “eine einzigartige Gelegenheit für Verschlucken von der Library of Congress.

The Indiana State Library, realizing the importance of digitally preserving Indiana German newspapers, immediately selected the Indiana Tribüne to be digitized, OCR’ed and sent to Chronicling America.

Die Indiana State Library, erkennen die Bedeutung von digital Erhaltung Indiana deutschen Zeitungen, sofort wählte die Indiana Tribune zu digitalisieren, OCR’ed und schließlich an Chronik Amerika. 

“The importance of foreign language newspapers and other publications printed for ethnic groups in the US is two-fold: on the one hand, they tell us a great deal about the ethnic group itself, but, on the other hand, they tell us perhaps even more about the development of American social and cultural life in general.”

“With easier access to these documents (often ignored in research because of their inaccessibility) historians will have the ability to gain new and more accurate perspectives on life in this country. The digitization of the Indiana Tribüne will help provide those perspectives.” Giles R. Hoyt, Ph.D., Professor emeritus, Director emeritus, IUPUI Max Kade German-American Center

“Die Bedeutung der fremdsprachigen Zeitungen und andere Publikationen für ethnische Gruppen in den USA gedruckt ist zweierlei: auf der einen Seite, sie sagen uns viel über die ethnische Gruppe selbst, sondern auf der anderen Seite, sie uns zu sagen, vielleicht noch mehr über die Entwicklung des amerikanischen sozialen und kulturellen Leben im Allgemeinen. “

“Mit leichteren Zugang zu diesen Dokumenten (oft in der Forschung wegen ihrer Unzugänglichkeit ignoriert) Historiker haben die Möglichkeit, neue und genauere Perspektiven auf das Leben in diesem Land zu gewinnen. Die Digitalisierung der Indiana Tribüne wird dazu beitragen, diese Perspektiven.” Giles R . Hoyt, Ph.D., Professor emeritus, Direktor emeritus, IUPUI Max Kade German-American Center

Library of Congress Representative to Pay Special Visit to Indiana

The Indiana State Library will host a public program on Friday, July 13 featuring Ms. Deborah Thomas, the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP) coordinator for the Library of Congress. Ms. Thomas will discuss the Chronicling America website and the importance of digitizing and preserving historic newspapers published in Indiana. The presentation will take place at the State Library at 315 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, in the History Reference room from 10:30 AM to noon (EDT).

Indiana is one of twenty-nine states currently participating in the NDNP program. The Indiana State Library, in partnership with the Indiana Historical Society, is digitizing a selection of Indiana’s historically significant newspapers as part of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) NDNP grant. Newspapers digitized as part of this two-year project will be included in the Library of Congress’ Chronicling America website, which provides access to information about historic newspapers and select digitized newspaper pages. The NDNP is a long-term effort to develop an Internet-based, searchable database of U.S. newspapers with descriptive information and select digitization of historic pages.

This program is worth two (2) Technology Library Education Units toward public librarian certification. Please contact Indiana NDNP project manager Chris Ittenbach at cittenbach@library.in.gov or (317) 234-8153 if you are interested in attending the program. Visit either the project wiki (http://208.119.72.66/digiwiki) to monitor the Indiana NDNP project and receive real-time project status reports.

Indiana Tribüne

The Disappearance of the German Language Press In Indianapolis And Throughout the United States During 1917 and 1918

On May 3, 1918 the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne printed on page 1 an announcement citing an opinion of the U.S. Attorney General that the United States Government will not lend its aid to the “drive” for the suppression of newspapers printed in German, PROVIDED THAT THEY DO NOT ENGAGE IN UNLAWFUL PROPAGAGNDA”. On May 8 Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne printed on page 1 an announcement quoting President Wilson, “I would just as leave Americanize a language as Americanize an individual. You should not regard the language in which you print your periodicals as a foreign language when printed in America for the conveyance of American thinking. Then we will have taken another step toward that combination of elements which in the long run is going to make America more various in its natural gifts, more variegated in its genius than any other country in the world.” On May 17, 1918 the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne printed on page 1 an announcement where Mr. George Creel (of the Committee for Public Information) opined that “…the loyal American press printed in the German language fulfills an important mission…the German papers had a right to continue so long as Congress had not abrogated that right…” Mr. Creel also opined that “…he did not favor teaching German in the primary grades of schools, but that he was not opposed to having it taught in the higher grades, as there always were some person who desired to read Goethe and Schiller in the original.” On May 23, 1918 the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne printed on page 1 an announcement related how Champ Clark, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, said that “…the readers of the American papers printed in the German Language need have no fear of Congress ever passing a law to suppress these papers, providing they observe the existing laws…He called the German language newspapers loyal and said that the Government itself was most benefited by them and that the Government fully appreciated the services rendered by them.”

On May 29, however, the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne printed on page 1 an announcement that it and the Spottvogel would cease publication on Monday June 3, 1917 after fifty three years of publication. The announcement received coverage in the English language press with a front page article in the Indianapolis Star. The Indianapolis Star article quotes Otto E. Tamm, the advertising manager of the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne and the Spottvogel, “We are neutral before the entrance of the United States and we have been loyal since.” In the announcement printed on the front page of the Täglicher Telegraph und Tribüne it was stated that, “Unfortunately, however, a pronounced prejudice has arisen in this country against everything printed or written in the German language, regardless of the fact that the German language newspapers are the means of reaching thousands of persons who are reached in no other way, and because of this prejudice and because we feel that all causes for possible disturbance in our community should be removed, we have decided to take the step suggested.”

Courtesy of Indiana State Library.
The May 29, 1918 issue of the Taglicher Telegraph und Tribune. Courtesy of Indiana State Library.

One wonders about the wording “possible disturbance in our community”, were vigilante groups threatening to become active in Indianapolis? In any event, given the anti-German propaganda that the American public was completely marinated in by this time, it would seem a hopeless task for any German language paper published in the United States to stay in business. Perhaps an advertisement that appeared in the May 31, 1918 issue of the Indianapolis Star best captures the feeling of the times. The advertisement is encouraging young men who possess high physical and mental qualifications to join the army tank corps whose motto is “Kill Germans – kill them early, late and all the time but kill them sure.”

An editorial in the May 31, 1918 issue of the Indianapolis Star. Courtesy of Indiana State Library.
An editorial in the May 31, 1918 issue of the Indianapolis Star. Courtesy of Indiana State Library.