Tag Archives: Chronicling America

The Politics of Publicity: Mayor “Lew” Shank and the Power of the Press

Social media today disseminates news faster than any other time in history. Our contemporary political atmosphere, dominated by the 24/7 news cycle and social media, often churns through stories faster than bills can be drafted and carefully-worded messages honed. One article from Mashable, entitled “The Future of Social Media and Politics”, examined how important social media outlets are to current grassroots campaigns and shaping political influence through direct communication with candidates. Another article, this time from The Atlantic, examines how charisma influences our perceptions of leaders and in what standing we hold them in.

These strategies, while utilizing the most up-to-date technology, are not new. The rise of John F. Kennedy over Richard Nixon was as much a response to his policies as it was his appearance in the first televised debates. The charismatic and good-looking Kennedy swayed many followers away from the established politician Nixon, and helped to shift the public perception on his ability to lead the country.[1] The power of messaging and personality is certainly a powerful tool in getting many leaders elected and crafting their image once in office.

Politics in Indiana during the first part of the 20th century was serious business. It was often dominated by political machines, the Ku Klux Klan, and larger-than-life political figures. However, two-time Republican Indianapolis mayor Samuel Lewis Shank, had no interest in either machine politics or joining the Klan. “Lew,” as he was called, did, however, like the idea of being a larger-than-life politician. Particularly during his first term as mayor, he frequently used the media as an outlet for showy political stunts and self-promotions. While he garnered a reputation as a colorful and outspoken figure, his well-covered tactics were not enough for him to go down in Indiana history as a masterful politician. Indeed, he resigned in late November 1913 with one month left of his mayoral term and was not elected to another political position for nearly a decade before one more stint as mayor.

The popularity of Lew Shank derived from the crafted image of his plainspoken nature, and the fact that he presented himself as the common man. This folksy-geniality endeared himself to the public, and the papers, for years. His career in auctioneering (which continued during both terms as mayor) and time on the stage as a vaudeville performer also provided him the skills to captivate crowds with outrageous stories. The unusual press Shank received during his years in politics, as demonstrated in Hoosier State Chronicles, certainly kept his name in the headlines, for better or worse.

The Indianapolis Journal, May 14th, 1904, p 15. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

Indianapolis Journal, June 27, 1903. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

Despite these somewhat unusual headlines, Shank was serious about politics. Shank’s political aspirations began at the age of eighteen. Shank attempted a campaign to become city councilor but was defeated. Undaunted, Shank mounted an ambitious campaign to not only raise his political profile, but also capture the seat of county recorder, wherein he was responsible for maintaining legal documents and records. This campaign included taking out self-promotional advertisements in local papers, partnering with companies to produce objects with his name imprinted on them, (like cigars and chewing gum), and engaging in several publicity stunts. These tactics not only won him the seat of county recorder, but also raised his popularity in local and national papers.

Example of Shank’s self-promotional use of advertisements. Indianapolis News, October 27th, 1902, p.12. Hoosier State Chronicles
Omaha Daily Bee, December 7th, 1902, p.15. Chronicling America 

 

The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 23rd, 1902, p. 44. Newspapers.com

 

Although a long shot (even for the Republican nomination spot), Shank was able to turn his success as county recorder into a viable campaign for mayor of Indianapolis in 1909. Edging out the favored Republican nominee and then his Democratic opponent, Shank won nine of fifteen wards of Indianapolis with a total of 1,625 votes. [2] Yet he was not above resorting to dishonest tactics to win. Shank recalled to the New-York Tribune in 1912 that he gained an advantage in the mayoral election with the African-American community by stating that his political opponent removed his daughter from an integrated school. He openly admitted lying—his opponent had no daughters at all. [3]

Once arriving in office, Shank had a great deal to prove to the citizens of Indianapolis and within his own party. He relied on theatrics and courted the media. One such effort included the enforcement of saloon laws in Indianapolis, particularly laws which prevented the sale of alcohol on Sundays. Shank, of course, handled the issue with his own particular brand of showmanship. Indeed, he insisted that Indianapolis saloon keepers’ licenses were revoked until they sat through a Sunday church service, among other requirements:

The Greenfield Republican, Greenfield, Indiana. February 3rd, 1910. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

Shank again entered the spotlight with his “High Cost of Living” campaign, a reaction to food pricing throughout the state. Shank, believing the mark-up of food to be excessive, went straight to the suppliers, purchased sundries, and then sold the products to the public at cost on the steps of the State Capitol building. What many could see as a cheap publicity stunt proved to be a boon to Shank’s popularity and actually led to lower prices of groceries in Indianapolis.

The Lake County Times (Hammond Times), Hammond, IN. January 27th, 1912. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

The San Francisco Call, San Francisco, CA, September 30, 1911. Chronicling America

 

The Day Book, Chicago, IL. December 23rd, 1911, Image 11. Chronicling America

 

However, his flashier tactics could not resolve the streetcar strikes in November of 1913, which ultimately led to his downfall. The Indianapolis Traction and Terminal employees began a wage and benefit strike. On November 2, the company president brought in strikebreakers, which led to open warfare. A violent clash between strikebreakers and striking workers led to injuries and two deaths. The owners of the line called in strike-breakers to get the lines running again, and requested help from the Indianapolis police department to protect the company men. Due to disagreements between Shank, the police chief, and officers, law enforcement did not provide an adequate response. This did not aid Shank’s standing for many in the city.

Collection of articles about the police situation, Indianapolis Star, November 27, 2013, p 8. Newspapers.com

 

Eventually, after threats of impeachment and another impending strike, Shank resigned his job as mayor, one month short of the end of his term. It is possible this too was a publicity stunt, as he had already signed a contract for, as the Encyclopedia of Indianapolis notes, “the vaudeville circuit with a monologue about his time as mayor.” It would be nearly nine years until Shank would be elected again to public office, and his exit was met with a generally negative response:

The Lake County Times, November 29, 1913, p 1. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

Opinion piece from The Lake County Times, December 1, 1913, p 4. Hoosier State Chronicles

 

During his second stint as mayor of Indianapolis in the early 1920s, he actively opposed the Klan through such methods as banning masked parades and burning crosses. [4] Although easily defeated, he ran in the Republican primary for governor in 1923 against the Klan-backed nominee (and eventual winner), Ed Jackson, in an effort to stem the statewide power of the Klan. Despite his non-traditional career path and aspirations for higher office, Shank’s rise in politics, led by his ability to capture media attention, was an improbable example of both the powers and limits of charismatic politics.


[1] For more information about the Nixon-Kennedy debates, see Time magazine’s article, “How the Nixon-Kennedy Debate Changed the World”

[2] The Indianapolis News, Wednesday Evening edition, November 3, 1909, p. 1.

[3] “Mayor Shank Tells How a Brace of Imaginary Daughters Helped Elect Him”, The New-York Tribune, February 25, 1912, p. 19. Accessed February 2, 2019. https://www.newspapers.com/image/467701598/

[4] “Samuel Lewis (Lew) Shank,” Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, edited by David J. Bodenhamer and Robert G. Barrows, (Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1994), 880.

The Dog Fennel Gazette: A Fresh Look at an Old Legend

Indiana’s long and rich history of newspaper publishing produced not only major papers of record but also some of the more obscure and oddly-named titles. For example, Hoosier State Chronicles, the state’s historic digital newspaper program, has digitized such titles as the New Albany Microscope and General Advertiser, the Danville Butcher-Knife, and Smithville’s iconic newspaper, Name It & Take It! Yet, one obscure title lingers in the Hoosier imagination more than any other and it likely did not even exist: Rushville’s Dog Fennel Gazette.

Name It and Take It!, June 1 1887, Hoosier State Chronicles.

The story of the Dog Fennel Gazette is much like any other tall tale. It emerged out of the wildness of Indiana’s early years as a state (1820s) and it continued to be repeated without skepticism for much of the state’s history. According to legend, printer William D. M. Wickham published the weekly newspaper in Rushville starting in either 1822 or 1823, and utilized a peculiar printing schedule. Historian Fred Cavinder noted that the paper was “published on one side of the page and sent to subscribers, who read it and returned it to the publisher so the next edition could be printed on the other side.”[1] The apocryphal journal of record received a huge boost of credibility after John Arnold included the story, as fact, in his history of Rush County. It was oft reprinted in other histories and journals, even appearing in a Pulitzer-Prize winning book on the Northwest Territory. During decades of spreading the tale, very few ever questioned it.

Greencastle Daily Banner, February 10, 1940, Hoosier State Chronicles.

Despite many years of tacit acceptance of the story, an undercurrent of scholarship emerged that challenged the well-entrenched narrative. John W. Miller, in his Indiana Newspaper Bibliography, argued “the existence of this paper is highly questionable.”[2] Historians Winifred Gregory also did not include the Gazette in her omnibus of American newspaper titles. However, the scholar who put the nail in the coffin for this myth was communications scholar Fredric Brewer in his 1993 article for the Indiana Magazine of History. In “Rushville’s Dog Fennel Gazette: Indiana’s Mythical Newspaper,” Brewer carefully examined the claims of the paper’s existence and came to a resounding conclusion: there was no Dog Fennel Gazette. As he noted, “no acknowledgement of the Dog Fennel’s founding appears in any of the extant issues of the Indiana, Kentucky, or western Ohio sheets that would have been contemporary. The simple reason the Dog Fennel earned neither a citation nor a welcome is because they newspaper never existed, probably not even as a proposal.”[3]

Dog Fennel, the plant the term comes from from. Virginia Native Plant Society.
A Google N-Gram of “Dog Fennel.” Google Books.

While the Dog Fennel Gazette is not a real newspaper, the term “dog fennel” was used throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In fact, a Google n-gram analysis of the term “dog fennel” shows peaks of use from the 1820s and ’30s, the 1840s to the 1860s, and 1880 well into the 1900s. The term is used most of the time to describe a type of “strong-scented c[h]amomile (Anthemis cotula)” that is colloquially referred to as a weed. Specifically, Frederic G. Cassidy and Joan Houston Hall note in their Dictionary of American Regional English that “dog fennel” is also called “chiggerweed,” “stinkweed,” and “Johnny-Appleseed’s-weed,” among others.[4] Hoosier author Booth Tarkington even used this definition in one of his novels. Yet, when one does additional research in digitized newspapers, “dog fennel” is often given another definition, one less descriptive and more judgmental. Throughout the decades of Indiana newspapers in Hoosier State Chronicles and Chronicling America, “dog fennel” is often used as a term of derision, akin to “nasty,” “backwater” or “uncivilized.” This essay shares some of these findings and indicates places of potential research for any scholar interested in expanding our understanding of this term and its relationship to the Hoosier State.

Indiana State Sentinel, March 16, 1848, Chronicling America.

One of the earliest uses of “dog fennel” in this variety shows up in the Indiana State Sentinel on March 16, 1848. In an editorial about the most-recent state legislative session, the writer decries the passage of over 600 new laws and uses a colorful analogy to demonstrate their superfluity. As the opinionated citizen writes:

“Does an old lady in some dog fennel town [emphasis added] want room for another onion bed, by having an alley adjoining her garden vacated, it is a matter of so much magnitude, that the wisdom of the Legislature must be invoked, and Legislature cannon must loaded to batter down the obstacle!”[5]

It is implied in the editorial that “dog fennel” means a town in the middle of nowhere with little or no importance to the affairs of big-city state legislators. Now, the author did not use the term in a patronizing way; in fact, it was used to differentiate the simpler lives of small town Indiana from the legislator’s “grey-bearded wisdom and rampant eloquence.” Today, we might use a regionalism like “Podunk” to describe a similar small town.

Indiana State Sentinel, July 10, 1851, Chronicling America.

Clearer indications of this meaning come from two issues of the Sentinel during the 1850s. The first concerns the minister Eli P. Farmer, a Whig candidate for Congress who was essentially called a liar by the Decatur Local Press. The Sentinel, not particularly a fan of Farmer and definitely not a Whig paper, found this accusation beyond the pale and called out the Local Press in an editorial. “What has Eli P. Farmer done to set the whole Whig press yelping at him? And what does the editor of this little dog fennel Gazette know about Eli P. Farmer?,” the Sentinel noted.[6] The term “dog fennel gazette” is directly used in this editorial to connote the Local Press’s unprofessionalism and sensational nature. A year later, the Sentinel published another editorial calling newspapers like the Winchester Patriot “dog fennel papers.”[7] Both references indicate that the term was used among newspaper publishers and editorialists much like the terms “rag” or “yellow papers,” indicating the cheap paper and even cheaper reporting. It does not seem like much of a stretch to go from people calling newspapers “dog fennel gazettes” and people actually thinking one existed.

Plymouth Tribune, September 26, 1907, Chronicling America.

This trend of referring to newspapers as “dog fennel” continued well into the twentieth century. In another editorial from the September 26, 1907 Plymouth Tribune, they called Plymouth Daily Independent publisher C. W. Metsker “unholy” and “a reprobate” and the paper he ran a “dog fennel sheet.”[8] This was in reference to Metsker’s support of a local interurban company subsidy that would raise local taxes. Plymouth’s local government eventually killed the subsidy proposal, likely with some help from the Tribune’s continued campaign against Metsker. Between the previous two examples and this one, using “dog fennel” as a pejorative against newspapers appears to have had staying power among newspaper editorialists.

Plymouth Weekly Democrat, April 20, 1865, Chronicling America.

Referring to towns, municipalities, and districts as “dog fennel” continued in newspapers as well. The April 20, 1865 issue of the Plymouth Weekly Democrat republished an editorial from the Buffalo Banner that called the city of Bluffton a “gilt-edged, dog fennel municipality.”[9] In 1882, a short blurb in the Indianapolis News reaffirmed that the capital city was not a “dog fennel town,” so long as the local authorities enforced the Sunday liquor law.[10] Finally, in a 1916 article in the aforementioned News, two officers were reassigned to patrol what were called “undesirable districts,” or “in the police vernacular, the ‘dog fennel.’”[11] In each instance, the use of “dog fennel” was with a negative connotation, namely that these towns or districts were uncivilized or even potentially dangerous. Also notice the timeframe for the three articles: there is a consistent use of the vernacular of “dog fennel” for over 60 years.

Evansville Daily Journal, October 4, 1864, Chronicling America.

Three more instances of referring to people as “dog fennel” are also worth note. The Evansville Daily Journal published a piece in 1864 calling a group of anti-Union protesters a “dog fennel militia.”[12] In a moment of unintentional, existential reverie, the Crawfordsville Weekly Journal ran a solitary question in their editorial section: “Are you a dog fennel man?”[13] Colonel Robert Ingersoll, noted Republican Party insider and public speaker, referred to the 1888 Democratic presidential ticket of Grover Cleveland and Allen G. Thurman as “dog fennel candidates,” meaning that they did not fight on behalf of the union or had sympathies with the copperheads during the Civil War.[14] This meaning is exactly the same as the “dog fennel militia” comment from the Evansville Daily Journal. According to the Greencastle Times, this particular usage of “dog fennel” emerged from another newspaper man, James K. Magie of the Canon, Illinois Register. Magie used it to denounce the Knights of the Golden Circle, an organization of the rebellion that would dig for gold on the outskirts of towns near dog fennel plants. Ingersoll then broadened its definition to apply to anyone who was ambivalent about the cause of the Union or held sympathies with the Confederacy. As with the other usages described throughout this survey, the definition of “dog fennel” varies but its intent to criticize or condemn is consistent.

Greencastle Times, July 19, 1888, Hoosier State Chronicles.

Evaluating each of these newspaper articles from Chronicling America and Hoosier State Chronicles provides researchers with a new avenue with which to analyze the term “dog fennel” and its usage throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Not only a term signifying a weed, “dog fennel” became synonymous with a wide array of negative connotations and was used exactly for that purpose. Within this climate, it is conceivable that an idea like “dog fennel gazette” turned it into a supposedly real newspaper, in this case the mythical Dog Fennel Gazette of Rushville. The first step for future researchers on this topic is using Hoosier State Chronicles (hoosierstatechronicles.org) and Chronicling America (chroniclingamerica.loc.gov) to find examples of this usage in other Indiana newspapers as well newspapers from across the country. Finding more instances of this usage in newspapers, as well as letters, books, magazine, and other primary sources, would expand our understanding of midwestern vernacular and its relationship to social, political, and economic life for much of the previous two centuries.

[1] Fred Cavinder, Indiana Book of Records, Firsts, and Fascinating Facts (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), 129.

[2] John W. Miller, Indiana Newspaper Bibliography (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1982), 392.

[3] Fredric Brewer, “Rushville’s Dog Fennel Gazette: Indiana’s Mythical Newspaper,” Indiana Magazine of History Indiana Magazine of History (March 1, 1993), accessed July 26, 2018, IU Scholar Works.

[4] Frederic G. Cassidy and Joan Houston Hall, Dictionary of American Regional English, Volume II: D-H (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), 109-110.

[5] “The Last Session,” Indiana State Sentinel, March 16, 1848, 2, accessed February 27, 2018, Chronicling America.

[6] “Eli P. Farmer, Indiana State Sentinel, July 10, 1851, 1, accessed February 19, 2018, Chronicling America.

[7] “Where they get their Cue,” Indiana State Sentinel, September 9, 1852, 1, April 2, 2018, Chronicling America.

[8] “Against the People Again,” Plymouth Democrat, September 26, 1907, 4, accessed February 19, 2018, Chronicling America.

[9] Plymouth Weekly Democrat, April 20, 1865, 1, accessed February 27, 2018, Chronicling America.

[10] Indianapolis News, July 7, 1882, 4, accessed July 27, 2018, Hoosier State Chronicles.

[11] Indianapolis News, September 2, 1916, 1, accessed April 2, 2018, Hoosier State Chronicles

[12] Evansville Daily Journal, October 4, 1864, 2, accessed February 27, 2018, Hoosier State Chronicles.

[13] Crawfordsville Weekly Journal, January 18, 1872, 2, accessed February 27, 2018, Hoosier State Chronicles.

[14] Greencastle Times, July 19, 1888, 6, accessed February 27, 2018, Hoosier State Chronicles.

Saying “Happy Holidays” | Is it such a recent thing?

There’s one tradition that often gets misunderstood during this time of year, especially among us Americans: it’s using the phrase, “Happy Holidays.” Some folks think that using this term, instead of saying “Merry Christmas,” “Happy Hanukkah,” or any other specific holiday, diminishes the importance of this time of year. They think the term is too recent, modern, and without a tradition of its own. However, when one does a little digging, you’ll soon find out that the phrase has a long and treasured history here in the United States and even in the Hoosier State.

Learn more Indiana History from the Indiana Historical Bureau: http://www.in.gov/history/

Search historic newspaper pages at Hoosier State Chronicles: www.hoosierstatechronicles.org

Visit our Blog: https://blog.newspapers.library.in.gov/

Visit Chronicling America to read more first drafts of history: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/

Learn more about the history relevance campaign at https://www.historyrelevance.com/.

Please comment, like, and subscribe!

Continue reading Saying “Happy Holidays” | Is it such a recent thing?

New Batch Available!

Hey there Chroniclers!

We have a new batch available for you through Chronicling Americahttp://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/.

This batch comprises 632 issues (totaling 6,346 pages) and brings our total page count in Chronicling America to 315,480!

Here are the papers and dates available:

Richmond Palladium (Weekly) : January 12, 1839 – December 29, 1843

Richmond Palladium and Sun-Telegram (Daily): January 1, 1912 – Mar 30, 1912, July 1, 1912 – September 30, 1912, October 1, 1913 – December 31, 1913, May 8, 1916, April 21, 1922-December 30, 1922

As always, happy searching!

This project has been assisted by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

New Batch Available!

Hey there Chroniclers!

We have a new batch available for you through Chronicling Americahttp://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/.

This batch comprises 875 issues (totaling 9,934 pages) and brings our total page count in Chronicling America to 309,134!

Here are the papers and dates available:

Jasper Weekly Courier: August 18, 1876 – December 22, 1876

Indiana State Sentinel (Weekly): October 09, 1878 – Dec 24, 1879

Richmond Palladium and Sun-Telegram (Daily): January 01, 1911 – December 30, 1911, November 22, 1915 – January 31, 1916, October 11, 1918 – December 31, 1919

As always, happy searching!

This project has been assisted by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

New Batch Available!

Greetings chroniclers!

We have another new batch available for you at Chronicling America.

This batch contains issues from:

This batch adds 1166 issues (8,878 pages), growing Indiana’s total number of pages in Chronicling America to 288,102!

Have fun with all these new pages, and as always, happy searching!

This project has been assisted by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

New Batch Available!

Hey there Chroniclers!

We’ve got another batch of newspapers available for you through Chronicling America!

This batch covers the Richmond Palladium (Daily) from January 01, 1920 to April 20, 1922. Our total page count is now 279, 042 pages!

Check out this new batch at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/.

This program has been assisted by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. To learn more, visit https://www.neh.gov/grants.

New Batch Available!

Greetings chroniclers!

Another newspaper batch from Hoosier State Chronicles has been added to the Library of Congress’s national newspaper repository, Chronicling America. Our total page count is now 258,563!

Check them all out here: http://bit.ly/2mF4b7r.

Furthermore, Chronicling America’s total page count is now 11,687,970.

As always, happy searching!

Check out these great institutions on Facebook:

National Endowment for the Humanities

Indiana State Library 

The Library of Congress

NDNP Conference 2016 Highlights

The US Capitol. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
The US Capitol. Courtesy of Justin Clark.

This past week, I went to the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP) Awardee Conference in Washington, D.C., with my colleague Jill Weiss. It was an informative and inspiring conference. The first day, we met at the National Constitution Center and we welcomed by the chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, Dr. William D. Adams. In his brief remarks, he emphasized the commitment that NEH has to the program and his belief in its importance to the public good. As a public historian, I was motivated by his call to make Chronicling America (the national digital newspaper repository) more accessible to the public. He also shared with us the big news about the program: the date range is expanding! This new date expansion will cover 1690-1963, which means that awardee states can do so much more for Chronicling America.

NEH Chairman Dr. William D. Adams speaking at the NDNP Conference. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
NEH Chairman Dr. William D. Adams speaking at the NDNP Conference. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
Leaning about the technical specifications for the NDNP with Tonijala Penn from the Library of Congress. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
Leaning about the technical specifications for the NDNP with Tonijala Penn from the Library of Congress. Courtesy of Justin Clark.

During the first day, we learned about the specific program needs for Chronicling America, including newspaper essays that explain the history of a title, deliverable products submitted to the Library of Congress, and the ins-and-outs of preparing newspaper titles for microfilm and digital preservation. These talks were especially important to a new program assistant like myself, who needs to know all the important tasks for the NDNP. Additionally, we watched a live-stream of the swearing-in of the new Librarian of Congress, Dr. Carla Hayden. In her speech, she called for the Library of Congress to make its own history by making materials more easily available to the public. With NDNP, we are doing just that.

Dr. Carla Hayden, the 14th Librarian of Congress, during her confirmation ceremony. Courtesy of District Dispatch.
Dr. Carla Hayden, the 14th Librarian of Congress, during her confirmation ceremony. Courtesy of District Dispatch.

In the afternoon of the first day, winners of the NDNP’s Data Challenge Awards presented on the innovative and creative ways they are using digital newspapers through Chronicling America. George Mason University professor Lincoln Mullen shared his research on the use of the Bible in American newspapers and how it showed religious trends during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Andrew Bales, a doctoral student from the University of Cincinnati, created a database for chronicling the horrific history of Lynching in the American South. Ending the first session, Amy Giroux, Marcy Galbreath, and Nathan Giroux from the University of Central Florida explored agricultural trends through their own aggregator of newspapers called Historical Agricultural News.

IUPUI librarians Caitlyn Pollack, Ted Polley, and Kristi Palmer accepting their NDNP Data Challenge Award for their work on "Chronicling Hoosier." Courtesy of Justin Clark.
IUPUI librarians Caitlyn Pollack (Second from left), Ted Polley, and Kristi Palmer accepting their NDNP Data Challenge Award for their work on “Chronicling Hoosier.” Courtesy of Justin Clark.

However, my favorite presentation (and maybe I’m biased since I’m from Indiana) was Chronicling Hoosier, presented by IUPUI’s own Kristi Palmer, Ted Polley, and Caitlyn Pollock. Their research looked into the history and geographical usage of the word “Hoosier.” While they didn’t learn the clear origin of the word (we may never really know), they did learn that its usage extended beyond just Indiana, from Virginia and Kentucky all the way down the Mississippi River to Louisiana. Originally a term of derision, meaning “country bumpkin” or “backwoodsman,” Hoosier became a beloved moniker by the late nineteenth century for those who lived in the State of Indiana. Listening to their presentation brought back memories of fourth grade Indiana History Class and the tall tales my teacher, Mrs. Hall, would share with the class about “Hoosiers.”

NDNP Conference attendees during a break. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
NDNP Conference attendees during a break. Courtesy of Justin Clark.

History teacher Ray Palin and student Virgile Bissonnette-Blais from Sunapee High School in New Hampshire displayed their project chronicling pivotal events in American history such as Plessy v. Ferguson. Ending the data challenge winner presentations, Professor Claudio Saunt and engineer Trevor Goodyear from Georgia shared with us their winning project, USNewsMap.com, which provides a timeline-based “heat map” on newspapers based on search queries. For those interested, it does work on proper nouns as well as regular search terms (I asked).

The Library of Congress, Madison Building. This is where days two and three of the conference were hosted. Courtesy of Justin Clark.
The Library of Congress, Madison Building, where days two and three of the conference were hosted. Courtesy of Justin Clark.

The second day mostly focused on working with bilingual and multilingual newspapers, copyright issues, and the production aspects of NDNP. The main session that day for me was the production session, where awardees that are new to the program learn the basics of microfilm and digital preservation. We learned how to organize film, correct technical specifications for digital files, and preparing those files for the Library of Congress and Chronicling America. While it was a lot to take in for a two-hour session, the production talks were vital to my understanding of all the tasks necessary for working on the NDNP.

Our last day involved a nice, open ended morning session for brainstorming marketing and outreach. We learned different marketing strategies for Twitter, Facebook, and other social media outlets, as well as other fun ways to get people to Chronicling America. My Hoosier State Chronicles colleague, Jill Weiss, asked questions about how we could get a podcast off the ground (something we’re working on for the future). The ground shared some of their favorite podcasts to check out for ideas and seemed very receptive to our idea. Like with the Data Challenge winners, I loved learning about all the creative ways that we can use NDNP content to reach users.

Overall, this was a very fun and informative conference and I look forward to applying much of what I learned to my tasks on this program. Stay tuned for more, and as always, happy searching!

Data Challenge Winner Links

America’s Public Bible: http://americaspublicbible.org/.

American Lynching: http://www.americanlynchingdata.com/.

Historical Agricultural News: http://ag-news.net/.

Chronicling Hoosier: http://centerfordigschol.github.io/chroniclinghoosier/.

Digital APUSH: https://apush.omeka.net/.

USNewsMap.com: http://usnewsmap.com/.

March Mayhem Closed Out 1895 State House Session

An incident which occurred 120 years ago this month made headlines across the state of Indiana and gained national attention. An obscure reference to the time in 1895 when “Democrats and Republicans fought like beasts of the forest” was included in the chapter on Governor Claude Matthews in the book, The Governors of Indiana, Gugin, 2006, [call number Ind. 923 G721]. A bit more research led to the re-discovery of an epic veto battle between Indiana Governor Claude Matthews and the Speaker of the Indiana House, with the Governor’s private secretary Myron King caught in the middle.

Jasper Weekly Courier

The editorial column on page four of the March 15, 1895 Jasper Weekly Courier informed readers of the assault and battery committed upon Myron King earlier in the week as he tried to deliver a veto of a controversial bill to the Speaker of the Indiana House of Representatives by the midnight deadline. The Jasper Weekly Courier, a Democratic leaning newspaper, set the tone with the alliterative editorial section headline, “Rowdy Republican Racket by Loud Legislative Looters,” recounting a laundry list of alleged offenses committed during the previous weeks and in the final minutes leading to the adjournment of the 59th session of General Assembly on March 11, 1895.

Even the Indianapolis German newspaper, Indiana Tribune, covered the events throughout the week of March 11th by including an update on Myron King’s condition on page one: March 16, 1895 Indiana Tribune.

HSC - Indiana Tribune

The translation: “Myron King, the Governor’s private secretary, is still confined to bed. To his friends’ worst fears, his condition deteriorated yesterday morning, but last night Dr. Cary said that he was much better. The battle in the state house will remain faithful to him in memory.”

Research Tip: When using the Hoosier State Chronicles with the Google Chrome browser, it can translate the OCR text automatically. As with most automatic translation software, there will be grammatical glitches due to OCR imperfections and language nuances.

Another source to access digitized newspapers is the NewspaperArchive database. This subscription database is available for on-site visitors to use at the Indiana State Library. A search found the April 6, 1909 issue of The Indianapolis Sun which recounted the 1895 incident.

Indy Sun

George W. Stout’s editorial column 14 years after the incident noted that “Democrats were turning back the clock while the Republicans were giving Myron King a free ride on the elevator, much against his will.” While Myron King was carrying the Fee and Salary Law signed by Governor Matthews, he also had in his possession the veto of the bill to take away the governor’s authority to appoint the Custodian of the State House. The bill would create a Board of Public Buildings and Property to appoint a Superintendent of the State House. It would automatically become a law unless the Governor’s veto made it back to the Speaker before the end of the session. House Democrats wanted to give King more time to deliver the veto before the deadline; House Republicans wanted to prevent him from getting into the House chambers.

FW sentinelThe Fort Wayne Sentinel called the previous day’s events a “Disgraceful Scene” in their March 12, 1895 issue. While the Tuesday morning page one headline of the daily Fort Wayne Gazette called the scene a “Mad Riot” and reported that men “fought like tigers.” Click here to view the PDF of page one: The_Fort_Wayne_Journal_Gazette_Tue__Mar_12__1895_.

Research Tip: As previously announced on this blog, Indiana residents can search and view the Fort Wayne papers and other select Indiana papers for free through a partnership between the Indiana State Library and Newspapers.com. via the INSPIRE portal. You will need to register for a free account before clipping, commenting, or saving.

The Fort Wayne Weekly Gazette had a different take on Myron King’s role in the battle as reported and editorialized in their March 21, 1895 issue.

FW Wkly Gazette p2 p4

Newspapers around the country covered the story, most certainly due to the sensational accounts of events that night. In fact, page one of the Tuesday, March 12, 1895 edition of the New York Times carried word of the Monday evening tumult in Indianapolis, with the headline, “King May Die of His Injuries.” While the headline conveyed sympathy for Myron King’s condition, it was also a prime example of the saying, “if it bleeds, it leads.” The local and national media could not resist covering this event, given the public’s appetite for the most fascinating and bizarre stories. These sort of stories sold papers. Telegraph wire services delivered news readily across the nation, but not necessarily accurately or in an unbiased fashion.

IMG_4795

Research Tip: Even without a paid subscription to the historical database, the New York Times archive’s index is a handy and free online tool. After finding an article citation, use the Indiana State Library’s out-of-state newspaper collection which includes the New York Times from May 1852 through December 2007 and the microfilm machines to view the microfilm reels.

NYT page 1

(The scan of the New York Times article shown above was made with one of the six new ViewScan digital microfilm scanners available to use on the second floor of the Indiana State Library.)

The Indiana legislature “Closed with Riots” according to page 3 of the March 12, 1895 San Francisco Call newspaper. The additional information about revolvers being drawn appears in some accounts, but not all reports in the Indiana newspapers.

SF call

Research Tip: The Chronicling America website is a comprehensive resource for discovering pre-1923 news stories in digitized newspapers from around the United States. The Indiana State Library participates in this project and receives grant funding to digitize the Indiana newspapers included.

What became of Myron King and did he recover after the events of March 1895? A jury was called to hear testimony about the fighting, but no charges were pursued against persons involved, according to page two of the Connersville Daily News, May 9, 1895. (Accessed via the library’s subscription to the NewspaperArchive database.)

Connersville

Revisiting post-1895 digital newspapers included in the Hoosier State Chronicles, an editorial column asking “Who broke Myron King’s ribs?” appeared in the September 29, 1914 South Bend News-Times. No one was ever charged with battery in the melee.

South Bend

Research Tip: A great resource for historical biographical information is the Indiana State Library’s Indiana Biography (card) Index. Also available as a free online database, the Indiana Biography Index Published Before 1990 contains images of the original index cards including one for Myron King. Visit the Great Hall of the Indiana State Library to view the card drawers in person!

Bio card index

While the index card above only cited two printed volumes, both are in the Indiana Collection and are also freely available in digital format on Internet Archive. Verifying the complete list of sources cited in the Indiana Biography Index helped to determine that “Memoirs of Indpls.” was the abbreviated title for the book, Pictorial and Biographical Memoirs of Indianapolis and Marion County, 1893, [call number Ind. 977.201 M341].

Memoirs

Since this book was published in 1893, prior to the 1895 incident, the information states that King was then serving as the private secretary to the governor. The sketch wraps up with a prediction that “his career is but fairly begun and his future promises to advance him far up the height of preferment, his talents and great personal popularity giving every assurance of a life in a wider and broader sphere of prominence and distinction.”

Men of Prog

Myron King’s biographical sketch and portrait appeared on pages 320-321 in the book Men of Progress, Indiana, by William Cumback, 1899, [call number Ind. 920 C969]. As was the style of biographical publications from the time period, the entry was most flattering to the subject. While no mention was made of the 1895 incident in the State House, it states that “Mr. King has always been faithful and untiring in the discharge of his duties as an officer, and especially was he attentive and earnest in the performance of his duties as the governor’s secretary.” As far as this limited research has shown, Myron King recovered enough from his injuries to continue serving as Governor Matthews’ private secretary.

Research Tip: A quick check of one of the Indiana Division’s favorite resources, the Indianapolis Newspaper Index, revealed a lone citation. The bulk of the years covered by the index, 1899-1978, are only available by checking the card drawers. Another great reason to visit the Indiana Division at the Indiana State Library for research!

IMG_4792

According to the index card, Myron King died March 21, 1940 having lived to the age of 88, and he also served as secretary to Indianapolis Mayor Thomas Taggart. Further examination of the microfilm holdings of the Indiana Newspaper Collection was the next step. Again, the image below was made from microfilm by using the new ViewScan digital scanners.

indystar1940

King’s obituary from the Indianapolis Star reveals more of his life and career path. However, no mention was made of the State House incident 45 years prior. While King’s obituary stated he died at City Hospital [later known as Wishard, recently renamed Eskenazi Health], his cause of death from arteriosclerosis was reported in the March 25 vital statistics column of the Indianapolis Commercial newspaper.

Indpls Commercial screen shot
Research Tip: The Indianapolis Commercial Newspaper Index is one of the Indiana State Library’s popular and free online resources, but it is not an obituary index, merely a vital statistics listing. This index can help to provide an approximate time in which to search for obituaries in other Indianapolis newspapers such as the Star, News, or Times. If a person died in Marion County and a listing is included in the Commercial, a good rule-of-thumb is to search the regular newspapers in the week before the statistical death entry appeared.

The 1895 Journal of the Indiana House of Representatives recorded nothing of the down-to-the-wire showdown; page 1624 notes that 12 midnight marked the termination of the session.

page 1624 House Journal 1895

Call it a wild brawl or call it politics as usual, the 1895 session ended with a bit of March mayhem. While the tale of Myron King and the veto battle was largely relegated to the cobwebs of history, with digitized newspapers the sensational details of the event can be rediscovered.

This blog post was written by Andrea Glenn, Librarian and State Documents Coordinator, in the Indiana Division of the Indiana State Library. For more information, contact the Indiana Collection Division at (317) 232-3670 or “Ask-A-Librarian” at http://www.in.gov/library/ask.htm.